CARE AND NUTRITION OF HEELS
If very good quality roughage is available, heifers over one year old can even be fed with roughage alone. In addition, licking stones containing calcium, phosphorus and minerals should always be kept in front of them. Heifers should gain 700-800 g per day during this period. In order for heifers to be used in the first mating at 15 months, it should be aimed to reach a weight of 350 kg at this age. If the growth is not sufficient, some compound feed is given. Heifers with energy, phosphorus and vitamin A deficiency do not show signs of heat. For heifers, leguminous or leguminous-wheat mixed hays are an excellent source of roughage. Especially early mowed grass has higher nutrient content than late mown grass. Corn silage is a good source of roughage for heifers over one year old. However, it should not be given to heifers without limits. Excess energy causes them to be fat. Heifers can be given 10-15 kg of corn silage. Although corn silage is rich in energy, it is poor in protein, calcium and phosphorus. For this reason, the compound feed of heifers fed corn silage as roughage should mostly consist of protein-rich oilseed meal such as soybean and cottonseed meal. If corn silage is given with some alfalfa hay, it will be supported with protein and calcium. While giving compound feed to heifers, the amount and protein content to be given vary according to the type and quality of the forage given.
HOW IS THE PEAK LEVEL OF MILK ESTIMATED IN COWS THAT HAVE GIVEN NEW BIRTH?
Estimation of Peak Level of Cows: On the 5th day after birth, 12-13 liters of excess milk expressed is the peak level. E.g; A cow that gives 20 liters of milk 5 days after birth will reach the peak level with 20+12/13=32-33 liters. This figure is 18 kg for heifers that gave birth for the first time. Example: 20+18=38 kg. peak level Importance: If this amount cannot be reached, it means "there is an insufficient energy problem". This situation; In addition to not reaching the desired level in milk yield, it indicates that there may be problems in conceiving the cow again, that the ration should be controlled especially in terms of energy or that energy supplements should be given.
POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN FEEDING DRY COWS:
• The ration should be balanced in terms of protein, energy, cellulose, vitamins and minerals. • Dry cows should have a walking area and they should be allowed to walk. • Dry cows should not be fatter than lactating cows. • Grain feeds should be restricted until fifteen days before birth, but it should be gradually given again fifteen days before birth. • Dry grass should be given, silage should not be given. • The roughage-concentrated feed balance should be provided in the total ration. • After the peak level of lactation has passed and pregnancy has occurred, concentrated feed should be reduced and fattening of the cows should be prevented. • Drying period of cows is normally 50-70 days. Care should be taken that the dry period is not long.
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